Short-term engineering measures involve the installation of physical barriers to provide protection from infection. The provision of separate patient pre-screening areas limits the number of patients going to hospitals or outpatient settings. A glass or plastic window or partition placed between an ill person and a health worker (e.g. receptionist) can prevent the virus from reaching staff. Installing an appropriate ventilation system in the premises and performing aerosol-generating procedures on patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 in an airborne infection isolation room (AIIR) can prevent aerosols from circulating freely in the air. Antechambers for staff donning and doffing of PPE limit the spread of the virus in the premises. Alcohol-based hand rub, soap dispensers and paper towels at points of care are an effective way of preventing the spread of pathogens and infections in healthcare settings. Skin moisturisation prevents hand hygiene-induced skin damage and severe hand irritation (chemical risks).
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